Abstract Number: PB0207
Meeting: ISTH 2021 Congress
Background: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at high risk of thromboembolic events, despite thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparins (LWMH), while increased-intensity thromboprophylaxis in this patient population is associated with bleeding. This raises the question whether pharmacokinetic (PK) effects of LMWHs are predictable in these patients.
Aims: To investigate whether a dosing algorithm for dalteparin administration could be designed based on clinical parameters, using PK modeling with anti-Xa levels as readout.
Methods: In this explorative, observational study, we prospectively included 15 adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit receiving dalteparin in prophylactic-intensity (5000IU dalteparin once daily (OD) for those <100kg, 5000IU dalteparin bidaily (BD) for those ≥100kg) and therapeutic-intensity (100IU/kg BD). A minimum of 4 anti-Xa samples per day were collected on regular timepoints over 1-3 days. PK analysis of dalteparin was performed by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM v7.4). The final model was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict anti-Xa levels with different dalteparin regimens. The study was approved by the local medical ethics committee.
Results: The data were well-fitted to a linear one compartment model. Wide interindividual variation in the parameters absorption (78%) and clearance (34%) of dalteparin was observed, not explained by clinical covariates such as creatinine clearance for elimination rate. Simulations show that prophylactic dosing in individuals <100kg result in anti-Xa levels within generally used prophylactic targets, while increased-prophylactic dosing in those ≥100kg result in supraprophylactic levels in 40% of patients. With therapeutic-intensity dosing in secondary thromboprophylaxis, 22% of patients would be subtherapeutically, and 19% patients supratherapeutically dosed.
Conclusions: Anti-Xa levels during dalteparin treatment in the critically ill COVID-19 patient are difficult to predict and often off-target. Until data from randomized clinical trials conclude on the best dosing, this suggests that anti-Xa measurements are needed to guide high-intensity dosing in the individual patient.
To cite this abstract in AMA style:van der Heijden C, Kooistra E, ter Heine R, Brüggemann R, Walburgh Schmidt J, de Grouw E, Frenzel T, Pickkers P, Leentjens J. Effects of Dalteparin on Anti-Xa Levels Cannot Be Predicted in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients [abstract]. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2021; 5 (Suppl 2). https://abstracts.isth.org/abstract/effects-of-dalteparin-on-anti-xa-levels-cannot-be-predicted-in-critically-ill-covid-19-patients/. Accessed December 6, 2023.
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